Part of the book: Toxicity and Drug Testing
Part of the book: Type 2 Diabetes
Part of the book: Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease affects about 6–7 million people worldwide, mostly in Latin America. Although Chagas disease was discovered more than 100 years ago, and the first treatments over 40, only 2 drugs were used to treat this pathology, it is still considered one of the neglected diseases. In this chapter, the subjects related to conventional etiological therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, such as the drug, the mechanism of action, the therapy schedule for treatment, efficacy and safety and their adverse effects will be discussed. Additionally, it will address alternative therapies of comorbidities related to the progression of Chagas’ disease in patients with chronic disease, such as heart disease and dysfunction of the digestive system. Finally, novel pharmacological strategies and their related compounds will be reviewed accounting for their progression in pharmacological studies and their success rate.
Part of the book: Chagas Disease
This chapter aims to describe and review the main important cytokines types (notably interferons), including their biological activities, functions and structures. As a high number of molecules are available, synthesis of the most important cytokines, including tumor factor necrosis, interferons and interleukins will be presented. Here we also describe the relationships between those cytokines with some autoimmune diseases that are promoted by them.
Part of the book: Autoantibodies and Cytokines