We isolated 41 and characterized 17 microsatellite loci for evaluating the genetic structure of the Amazonian fish Hypophthalmus marginatus, from the Tocantins and Araguaia River in the Eastern Amazonia. Of the 17 selected microsatellite sequences, 15 were dinucleotide repeats, 9 of which were perfect (5–31 repetitions) and 6 were composite motifs. Among these 17 microsatellites, only two were polymorphic. The average number of alleles (Na) observed in the five examined populations ranged from 3.5 to 4.5, while the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.3 to 0.6. The allelic frequency was less homogeneous at the locus Hm 5 than that for the Hm 13. Genetic diversity was measured in three upstream and two downstream populations under the influence of the Tucuruí Hydroelectric Dam. Our findings provide evidence for low levels of genetic diversity in H. marginatus of the Tocantis basin possibility related to the Dam construction. The Fst and Rst analysis fits well with migratory characteristics of H. marginatus, suggesting the existence of a gene flow mainly in the upstream or downstream directions. To test the hypothesis that the Dam was responsible for the detected reduction on this species genetic diversity, a large number of genetic markers are recommended, covering geographic distribution range of the fish species.
Part of the book: Microsatellite Markers