Part of the book: Understanding HIV/AIDS Management and Care
Human milk is a source of biologically active proteins, including lactoferrin (LF) and antibodies (Abs). These proteins are considered as the most polyfunctional proteins of human milk. Apparently, human milk is not a simple mixture of proteins and peptides: recently it was shown that human milk contains stable supramolecular protein complex, composed of LF, α‐lactalbumin, milk albumin, β‐casein, IgG, and sIgA molecules. We believe that the whole set of different biological functions of the individual milk proteins is significantly supplemented by features of their complexes.
Part of the book: Milk Proteins
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS pathogenesis is not clear. Destruction of myelin by inflammation caused by autoimmune reactions has been proposed. Interestingly, healthy humans usually do not develop abzymes (Abzs). It was shown that DNase and MBP-hydrolyzing Abzs are easily detectable at the beginning of autoimmune diseases (ADs) including MS, when concentrations of antibodies to autoantigens are not yet significantly increased and correspond to levels in healthy donors. In addition, the relative enzymatic activity of antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is ~50-fold higher than that from the sera of the same MS patients. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice, a model mimicking relevant aspects of human MS was used. During development of spontaneous and MOG35-55-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice, a specific reorganization of the immune system of mice was observed. It leads to a condition which was associated with the generation of catalytically active IgGs-hydrolyzing DNA, myelin basic protein (MBP), and MOG. Production of Abzs was associated with increased proteinuria, leading changes in differentiation of mice bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and an increase in proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus as well as a significant suppression of cell apoptosis in these organs. Treatment of control non-autoimmune CBA mice with MOG led to the different differentiation and proliferation of HSCs comparing with EAE C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of EAE mice with cuprizone inducing demyelination lead to a significant decrease in the size of the brain corpus callosum, but do not significantly change the differentiation profile of HSCs differentiation when compared with untreated mice. It indicates that cuprizone treatment is associated with demyelination, but not autoimmune reactivity. The possible differences in immune system reorganizations during preclinical phases of the disease, acute and late EAE, leading to production of different autoantibodies and Abzs as well other changes are discussed.
Part of the book: Trending Topics in Multiple Sclerosis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is known as a systemic polyethiologic diffuse autoimmune disease characterized by connective tissue disorganization and the paramount damage of skin and visceral capillaries. Usually, SLE symptoms include high fever, hair loss, mouth ulcers, chest pain, swollen lymph nodes, painful and swollen joints, increased fatigue, and appearance of red rash more often on the face. The exact reason of SLE appearance is not really clear. Detection of catalytic Abs (abzymes) was shown to be the earliest indicator of different AI disease development. Some abzymes are cytotoxic and can play a dangerous negative role in the pathogenesis of AI diseases. SLE is characterized by the appearance of abzymes with several different catalytic functions including hydrolysis of peptides and proteins, DNA, RNA, and oligosaccharides. In addition, monoclonal SLE abzymes are characterized by extraordinary diversity in the affinity to the substrates, physicochemical and catalytic characteristics, optimal conditions of catalysis, cytotoxicity, etc. Production of abzymes in SLE mice is associated with changes in the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells of bone marrow, increase in lymphocyte proliferation, and significant suppression of cell apoptosis in different organs. In this chapter, abzymes with different catalytic activities in SLE are described.
Part of the book: Lupus
Schizophrenia is usually a progressive mental illness with very different polymorphic symptoms. Several different theories of schizophrenia were discussed; the causes of this disease are not yet clear. Destruction of DNA, RNA, and myelin basic protein (MBP) by inflammation caused by autoimmune reactions has been revealed. Healthy humans usually do not develop abzymes. It was shown that DNase, RNase, and MBP-hydrolyzing abzymes are easily detectable at the beginning of different autoimmune diseases (AIDs). During the development of spontaneous and induced AIDs in mice, a specific reorganization of their immune system associated with the generation of abzymes hydrolyzing different autoantigens was revealed. SCZ is currently not assigned to classical autoimmune diseases. However, the sera of approximately 30% of SCZ patients demonstrated a high level of anti-DNA Abs (comparing to 37% of SLE patients); abzymes hydrolyzing DNA, RNA, and MBP were revealed in 80–100% of SCZ patients. The site-specific hydrolysis of four known SCZ-specific microRNA playing an important role in the regulation of several genes functioning was revealed. Anti-MBP IgGs hydrolyze specifically only MBP but not other proteins. The data indicate that SCZ patients may to a certain extent show similar to SLE and MS patients’ typical signs of autoimmune processes.
Part of the book: Psychotic Disorders
Microelements play different important roles in many physiological processes in all biological systems in both normal physiological and pathological conditions. They take part in the transport of nutrients and gases, support temperature, acid-base balance, homeostasis of the human organisms, maternal and child mental health, the functioning of enzymes, protein and DNA syntheses, cytoskeleton activation, etc. We have performed simultaneous determination of a number of minor and trace elements in whole blood and tissues of mammals by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry (TJP-AES). TJP-AES allows direct analysis of powders without wet acid digestion and can be used for analysis of both large and small amount of the sample, which is important for biomedical investigations with humans and experimental animals. In addition, a content of different elements in preparations of human immunoglobulins was estimated by TJP-AES as well as using different physicochemical methods, the functional role of metal ions in antibodies functioning was analyzed. The analysis of the relative activity of antibodies with catalytic activity (abzymes) in the hydrolysis of DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides and oxidation-reduction reactions and the role of metal ions in the catalysis of these reactions by abzymes were carried out.
Part of the book: Trace Elements
Cells of the multicellular organisms communicate with each other in many different ways, among which extracellular vesicles play a unique role. Almost all cell types secrete vesicles into the extracellular space and deliver their contents to recipient cells. Today, one of the groups of extracellular vesicles that is of particular interest for studying is exosomes—membrane vesicles with a diameter of 40–100 nm. Exosomes are secreted by cells and found in various biological fluids—blood, tears, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and milk. Exosomes provide not only targeted delivery of molecular signals to recipient cells but also carry unique markers, which makes them a promising substrate in diagnostic studies, primarily due to their small RNA and protein contents. The milk of cows, horses, humans, and other mammals is a unique source of exosomes since these organisms can produce liters of milk per day, which is much higher than the volume of exosomes produced in cell culture fluid or blood plasma. Unfortunately, milk exosomes are currently much less studied than exosomes of blood or culture fluid. This review examines the methods of the isolation, biochemical analysis (composition of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids), morphology, and prospects for the use of milk exosomes.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles and Their Importance in Human Health