Part of the book: Advances in the Etiology, Pathogenesis and Pathology of Vasculitis
“Mutualism” is a well-defined relationship that describes a form of cooperation between two living organisms of different species that ends up with a beneficial outcome for each one. Any disruption to such a relationship by an external trigger or a potential intruder puts at risk the well-being of both. In humans, oral and gut microbiota provide a noteworthy model of beneficial mutualism. Multiple recent evidences point to the possible pathologic consequences of a disruption to this ecosystem (altered microbiota profile or dysbiosis) on human well-being. The gut-joint axis found its clear way “Proof of Principle” in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), seronegative spondyloarthropathies, and Behcet’s disease in a number of studies. Current therapeutic trends are directed towards the diverse biologic and immune-pathogenic factors involved in the disease process. Addressing dysbiosis in RA features an attractive future therapeutic target. In this chapter, authors aim to explore the recent evidences regarding the pathogenic role of “gut dysbiosis” in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), highlighting the spectrum of immune-pathogenic events that might contribute to disease evolution and inspecting future directives of research.
Part of the book: New Developments in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis