Phenolics compounds in grapes contribute to berry and must color, organoleptic properties, nutritional value, antioxidant properties and provide protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has place mammoth challenges for the viticulture industry in different viticulture regions. Environmental variables determine to the greater extent, suitable grapes varieties for fresh as well as premium quality wine production. Grape berry composition is particularly affected by heat, drought, and intensity of solar irradiation. It is expected that climatic extremes will have an adverse effect on berry quality traits such as phenolic compounds in different grape cultivars. Polyphenols particularly anthocyanins decrease at elevated temperature, similarly flavanols levels increase with better exposure to solar radiation. Water availability is crucial for better vine growth and good production, however modest water stress particularly near veraison, upregulates the activity of key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways. Therefore, it is important to know that how and when phenolic substance accumulate in berries and how various cultivars respond. This review elaborates the effect of weather conditions on biosynthesis of different phenolic compounds in grapes. Berry phenolic substances e.g., total phenolic compounds (TPC), total anthocyanins (TAC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) synthesis is strongly regulated under the influence of environmental conditions during growing season. In this chapter we, shall focus on accumulation of phenolic compounds in grapevine in relation to climatic variations.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds