Contamination by fungi and mycotoxins in nuts has achieved much attention in recent years. In fact, the fungal metabolites produced by the species of Aspergillus, Penicillium (aflatoxins and ochratoxins), Fusarium (trichothecenes, zearalenones and fumonisins) and Alternaria (alternariotoxins) with toxic and/or carcinogenic effects are considered a threat to human and animal health. In this chapter we will discuss the main fungal taxa and related mycotoxins most frequently associated with these materials. In this regard, the first results on the level of contamination by fungi and mycotoxins in samples of almonds and pistachios of different origins will be reported. The main strategies to reduce the risk of contamination will also be recommended.
Part of the book: Nuts and Nut Products in Human Health and Nutrition