Lipid peroxidation is an end process of cellular injury driven by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation through several molecular changes. Metabolism-generated reactive oxygen species avidly attack the polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid cell membranes, initiating a self-propagating chain-reaction. Cell membrane destruction, lipids and the end-products of lipid peroxidation reactions are hostile to the viability of cells, even tissues causing and exacerbating Diabetes Mellitus (DM), neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Current treatment regimens have untoward side effects in the long-term necessitating phytochemical use as these are part of natural food sources. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms may be over run causing lipid peroxidation to take place. In disease states, oxidative stress may increase with subsequent production of increased free radicals which may over run the antioxidant capacity of the body with resultant oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cell fluid membranes with cellular and tissue damage. Phytochemicals, have been shown to ameliorate diseases through attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, causing tissue regeneration by regulating signaling systems and neuroprotective processes. Involvement of polyphenolic and non-phenolic phytochemical in the attenuation of OS, inflammation and lipid peroxidation remain areas of critical importance in combating DM, CVDA, NDD and RA.
Part of the book: Accenting Lipid Peroxidation