Many neurotoxic substances produce toxic effects on the nervous system. Given the neurotoxic substances found in the human body, certain people have been regarded as having a propensity to epileptic seizures. In many situations, the neurotransmission processes of these toxins are similar to the physiopathology of epilepsy. Epileptic models have been developed to induce seizures in animals, allowing researchers to study convulsive seizure mechanisms. Pentylenetetrazol, kainic acid, pilocarpine, penicillin, aluminum, bicuculline, picrotoxine, 4-aminopyridine, strictine, domoic acid, and other compounds fall under this category. However, there are some drugs used in clinical practice that can cause neurotoxicity as well. In this chapter, the predominant substances and drugs involved in epileptogenesis through neurotoxicity effects are reviewed. Throughout this chapter, we attempt to describe the mechanisms documented in the literature, in which epileptic seizures cause neurotoxicity in the brain by themselves, as shown with excitotoxicity mediated by glutamate and ions involved.
Part of the book: Neurotoxicity