To determine the role of NADPH-oxidase mediated formation of different lipid, protein-derived molecules, and depletion of vitamin-C level in vitreous behind the endothelial dysfunction-induced vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fourteen T2DM patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (MNPDR), 11 patients without diabetic retinopathy (DNR), 17 T2 DM subjects with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (HRPDR), and 5 healthy individuals without DM underwent vitreous analysis for estimation NADPH oxidase, lipid peroxide like malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-Hydroxy-noneal (HNE) and advanced lipoxidation end product (ALE) like Hexanoyl-lysine (HLY), protein carbonyl compound (PCC), Vitamin-C and concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion following standard spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vitreous concentration of NADPH-oxidase, different protein and lipid-derived molecule, and VEGF were found to be significantly elevated among DNR and of DR subjects with different grades compared to HC subjects whereasthe vitamin-C level was found to be decreased among different DR subjects and DNR subjects in comparison to healthy individuals. Oxidative stress-mediated lipid and protein-derived biomolecules not only add important mediators in the pathogenesis of DR, but also accelerate the progression and severity of microangiopathy.
Part of the book: Diabetic Eye Disease