Part of the book: Etiology and Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease
There is substantial interindividual variability in the efficacy and tolerability of anticancer drugs. Such differences can be greater between individuals of different ethnicities. The clinical studies demonstrate that individuals from Asia (East Asia) are more susceptible to the effects of platinum-containing chemotherapies than their Western counterparts. To determine whether population-related genomics (i.e., frequencies of DNA polymorphisms) contribute to differences in patient outcomes, polymorphisms in 109 genes involved mainly in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, the cell cycle, and apoptosis were tested in Russian (Caucasians) and Yakut (North Asians) ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Totally, 232 polymorphisms were genotyped in individual DNA samples using conventional PCR and arrayed primer extension technology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 30 genes were found to be associated with one or more of clinical end points (i.e., tumor response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and side effects). However, all associations between SNPs and clinical outcomes were specific for each of ethnic group studied. These findings let us to propose the existence of distinctive ethnic-related characteristics in molecular mechanisms determining the sensitivity of patients to platinum drug effects.
Part of the book: Ovarian Cancer