The respiratory system is the most common target of COVID-19, however, various experimental studies and case reports have shown its affinity for neural tissues. In this chapter, we described pathogenesis and propagation of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the nervous system, potential routes of the SARS-CoV-2 invasion in the brain, as well as indirect effects of COVID-19 on multiorgan disorders. We have also presented all of the reported neurological manifestations in COVID-19 with an explanation of possible underlying pathways. Among patients who tested positive on SARS-CoV-2, various neurological irregularities have been described, affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In general, neurological complications in COVID-19 patients occur within 1 and 14 days, in most cases on average on the 5th day of the incubation period. We have demonstrated all of the reported neurological findings, whereas the most commonly reported were headache, dizziness, myalgia, hypogeusia, hyposmia, and impaired consciousness. More serious neurological conditions in COVID-19 included meningitis, encephalitis, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.
Part of the book: Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic