Cervical cancer is one of the leading female cancers especially in developing countries and a common cause of death among middle-aged women. The main role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in both cervical cancer and pre-invasive lesions of the cervix has been proven in studies. Reducing the incidence of the disease can be achieved by the regular cervical screening of women and vaccination of appropriate age groups. The disease can be better controlled by better elucidating the details of HPV carcinogenesis, the interaction between the host and the virus, and determinants of the systemic and cellular immune response to the viral infection. HPV causes oropharyngeal and anogenital diseases in both men and women and is usually sexually transmitted. Most infections are transient and could be cleared spontaneously by the host immune system. After the first encounter with HPV infection, it takes years to progress to cervical cancer, which gives clinicians a long period to follow these patients in terms of precancerous lesions and to investigate the pathogenesis of the disease. HPV plays a major role in the development of cervical cancer, but histological types have different relationships with HPV genotypes. HPV can remain latent for a long time and the most important thing determining the persistence is the type of HPV. HPV vaccination provides a direct benefit to both men and women by providing safe protection against cancers that may result from persistent HPV infection.
Part of the book: Cervical Cancer
Obesity is a very common health problem in almost all societies. Although obesity is a problem especially in high-income or upper-middle-income countries, it is predicted that obesity will increase rapidly in the future in developing countries. Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk for many malignancies and its impact on cancer incidence and mortality is well established. The role of obesity in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer has been proved. The incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing due to an increasing prevalence of obesity. Approximately 57% of endometrial cancers in the United States are thought to be attributable to being overweight and obese. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and endometrial cancer have not been fully defined, however adipokines are known to stimulate cell proliferation in endometrial carcinoma. By preventing obesity and reducing its prevalence, deaths from endometrial cancer can be reduced.
Part of the book: Role of Obesity in Human Health and Disease