Recently proposed options for desalination brine management involve blending of brine with a lighter effluent or concentrating the brine prior to discharge, either of which can significantly alter the discharge concentrations of contaminants. We evaluate the effect of these brine management strategies on the design of submerged outfalls used to discharge brine. Optimization of outfall design is considered such that adequate mixing can be provided with minimum cost. Designs with submerged and surfacing plume are considered for outfalls located in shallow coastal regions with small currents (quiescent receiving water is assumed). Pre-dilution with treated wastewater is shown to reduce the outfall cost, whereas pre-dilution with seawater or pre-concentration are shown to result in higher costs than the discharge of brine alone. The effect of bottom slope is also explored and the results suggest that multiport diffusers are better suited than single jets at locations with a mild bottom slope.
Part of the book: Pathways and Challenges for Efficient Desalination