Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common pelvic tumors, affecting more than 70% of women over 70 years of age and although most are asymptomatic, some women may experience symptoms, depending on their location and size, which can alter your quality of life, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, anemia, pelvic pain and pressure, dyspareunia, increased urinary frequency and constipation. Its relationship with infertility has been controversial and, although insignificant for subserous fibroids, it appears that submucosal and intramural fibroids that distort the endometrial cavity can affect embryo implantation and are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. Its treatment will depend on the patient’s symptoms, size, location, whether it is one or multiple, and whether or not she suffers from infertility. It is clear that submucosal fibroids have a negative impact on fertility and with respect to intramural fibroids it is known that fibroids larger than 4 cm alter the probability of pregnancy, however there are studies that show that even smaller or multiple fibroids could affect pregnancy rates. There are multiple options for the treatment of fibroids; however, patients who are candidates for expectant, medical or surgical management should be individualized, and especially if they are going to be taken to surgery, an excellent mapping of fibroids prior to surgical intervention is recommended. Minimally invasive surgery continues to be the approach of choice, it should be left for the open approach in cases in which Laparoscopy is contraindicated or the patient with multiple myomatosis.
Part of the book: Infertility and Assisted Reproduction