Hypopharyngeal carcinoma is uncommon in all head and neck cancers. With a synergistic reaction of each, tobacco consumption and alcohol abuse contribute to the tumorigenesis. The aerodigestive tract epithelium exposure to similar risks causing multiple cancers. Thus, a pan-endoscopic screening offers a practical approach for evaluating second primary esophageal cancer. The common symptoms of hypopharyngeal carcinoma were globus pharyngeus, sore throat, dysphagia, otalgia, neck mass, hoarseness, and dyspnoea. However, approximately 75–80% of patients are initial diagnosed with advanced-stage. Although improvements in therapy, the prognosis is still lacking. In early-stage patients, primary surgical resection and radiotherapy achieved similar survival and locoregional control rates. T1–T2 malignancies with N0–N1 can usually be treated with radiation alone, open surgery, or transoral surgery. In some people, after primary surgery or transoral approaches is often required adjuvant radiotherapy. However, most cases have been in the advanced-stage when screened. Individual therapy programs should be chosen carefully to achieve a balance between swallowing-voice rehabilitation and organ preservation in advanced-stage ones. Meanwhile, reasonable reconstruction of intraoperative defect is essential for a surgeon who seeks satisfied postoperative outcomes. Considerable treatment (surgery or non-surgery) remains the key point of improving the survival rate.
Part of the book: Pharynx