Lithium ferrite (LiFe5O8) is a cubic ferrite, belongs to the group of soft ferrite materials with a square hysteresis loop, with high Curie temperature and magnetization. The spinel structure of LiFe5O8 has two crystalline forms: ordered, β-LiFe5O8 (Fd3m space group) and disordered, α-LiFe5O8 (P4132/P4332 space group). It has numerous technological applications in microwave devices, computer memory chip, magnetic recording, radio frequency coil fabrication, transformer cores, rod antennas, magnetic liquids among others. It is also a promising candidate for cathode in rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, the dc electrical conductivity, the impedance spectroscopy and the magnetization of Li2O-Fe2O3 powders, with [Li]/[Fe]=1/5 (mol), heat-treated at several temperatures, are studied and related to their structure and morphology. The structural data were obtained by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The impedance spectroscopy was analysed in function of temperature and frequency, and it was observed that the dielectric properties are highly dependent on the microstructure of the samples. The dc magnetic susceptibility was recorded with a vibrating sample magnetometer, under zero field cooled and field cooled sequences, between 5-300 K. Typical hysteresis curves were obtained and the saturation magnetization increases with increase in heat-treatment temperature.
Part of the book: Magnetic Spinels
The current progress in communication technologies is leading to extensive studies on the development of miniaturized electronic devices with high electromagnetic performances, reliability, and low cost. Contributing to this purpose, the development and study of new materials, with promising electric properties in radio and microwave ranges, have been subject of our research in particular niobate-based materials. Bismuth niobate, BiNbO4, is a low-firing ceramic that has been studied for a variety of applications in the microelectronic industry. In this work, the microwave dielectric characterization of (Bi1−x Fex )NbO4 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 1.00) samples, prepared by the sol-gel method and heat treated at specific temperatures, is performed and related with their structure and morphology. The structural data were obtained by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric characterization in the microwave region was made using the small perturbation theory, with a resonant cavity operating in TE105 mode, at the frequency of 2.7 GHz. The results show that the sol-gel method has the advantage of allowing the formation of α-BiNbO4 phase at lower temperatures when compared with conventional preparation methods, and that the inclusion of iron inhibits the formation of low- and high-temperature β-BiNbO4 phases.
Part of the book: Recent Applications in Sol-Gel Synthesis
The development of new dielectric materials that allow the reduction of size and weight of electronic components has been in the scope of the researchers. The bismuth-based dielectric ceramics are extensively studied for this purpose, namely, the bismuth niobate (BiNbO4). The first attempt to improve BiNbO4 occurred in 1992 when Kagata reported the microwave dielectric properties of bismuth niobate doped with the addition of oxides. This chapter will present a brief review of the several attempts that have been carried out to enhance the dielectric properties of BiNbO4 by modifying their structure through addition, doping, or atom(s) substitution. This manuscript focuses on a case study that involves bismuth substitution by europium ions. To investigate the inclusion of europium in BiNbO4 ceramics, (Bi1–xEux)NbO4 samples were prepared using the sol-gel method, in particular, the citrate route. The structure of the prepared samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dielectric properties were studied, in the microwave frequency range (MW), using the resonant cavity method, and in the radio frequency range (RF), with the impedance spectroscopy technique.
Part of the book: Bismuth
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) consist of a combination of calcium phosphates and a liquid phase, allowing it to fit into the body where it was inserted. Several chemical compositions have been synthesized, promoting specific characteristics to the cements for applications such as bone augmentation and reinforcement and metal implant fixation. The hardening reaction mechanism is at low temperatures and makes it capable of incorporating different drugs and other biological molecules. In addition to the abovementioned advantages, CPCs have excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity and the ability to form a bone bond. Its function as osteoconductor can be improved by insertion of growth factors. In addition, it is possible to functionalize it with silver ions and use it as a coating of implants, conferring antibacterial properties. In this chapter the physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties and the possibility of using these cements as drug carriers or biomolecules will be discussed.
Part of the book: Contemporary Topics about Phosphorus in Biology and Materials