Part of the book: Flavivirus Encephalitis
Nanosilver (in a range 1–100 nm) binds with thyol-, amino- and carboxy-groups of aminoacid residues of proteins and nucleic acids, thus providing inactivation of pathogenic multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Besides antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anti-cancer properties Ag-based nanomaterials possess anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis and antiplatelet features. Drug efficacy depends on their stability, toxicity and host immune response. Citrate coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) remain stable colloid solutions in deionized water but not in the presence of ions due to replacement of Ag+ by electrolyte ions, potential formation of insoluble AgCl, subsequent catalyzed oxidative corrosion of Ag and further dissolution of surface layer of Ag2O. Protein shells protect core of AgNPs from oxidation, dissolution, aggregation and provide specific interactions with ligands. These nanoconjugates can be used for immunoassays and diagnostics but the sensitivity threshold does not exceed 10 pg Cytotoxicity of AgNPs conjugated with proteins is associated with the rate of intracellular Ag+ release, a ‘Trojan horse’ effect, and exceeds one of Ag+ because of endocytosis uptake of NPs but not ions. Relatively toxic nanosilver causes immunosuppression of the majority of cytokines with a few exceptions (IL-1β, G-CSF, MCP-1) whereas AgNO3 additionally activate TNFα and IL8 gene expression.
Part of the book: Silver Micro-Nanoparticles