Graphene oxide (GO), produced by oxidation of graphite powder and exfoliation, is intensively utilized in electrodes, templates for hybrid materials, interfacial modifiers, three-dimensional structures, and so on, with its performance as an electrode material being determined by its chemical and structural states. This chapter describes the fabrication method of GO nanosheets from graphite oxide powder and their stable dispersion after reduction and applications in devices. Rheologically driven exfoliation and unusual acoustic cavitation methods were applied to produce large and less defective GO nanosheets. As a dispersion strategy of reduced GO (RGO) in solution, TiO2 precursor, cation-π interaction, silanol groups were introduced. Moreover, supramolecular chemistry, for example, quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties, was applied to solve the dispersion of highly concentrated RGO pastes. As potential applications of GO and RGO, we described GO as a p-type dopant and interfacial modifier as well as energy storage electrodes, IR sensors, and emitters. The judicious use of chemically exfoliated graphene can open new applications as a flexible electrode.
Part of the book: Graphene Oxide
One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been used as replacements for brittle indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication of transparent conducting films (TCFs), which can be used in opto-electronic devices such as screen panels, solar cell panels, and organic light-emitting diodes. This chapter describes a fabrication method of high-performance TCFs by solution processing of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and AgNWs. Highly uniform TCFs with SWCNTs and AgNW inks were fabricated using spray deposition. Their performance was modulated by interfacial engineering such as overcoating with silane compound for densification of SWCNT networks and chemical or photothermal welding of SWCNT networks on thermoplastic substrates. Moreover, the hybridization of SWCNTs, AgNWs, and graphene oxide nanosheets is a promising approach to mitigate their drawbacks via p-type doping, electrical stabilization, or interfacial stabilization on plastic substrates. The rational control of 1D material networks can provide a good opportunity to fabricate high-performance TCFs for flexible opto-electronic devices.
Part of the book: Transparent Conducting Films