Two types of micro‐ and nanocarriers for immobilization of enzymes for biotechnological and biomedical applications are described: magnetic nanoparticles and cross‐linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). Nanosized structures with their large surface and smaller size volume ratio, which is dependent on their strong magnetic dipole, give key features that make magnetic nanoparticles useful in many biotechnological and biomedical applications. They are therefore used as carriers to which different active substances can bind. The preparation of the magnetic nanoparticles, possible surface coating methods, and functionalization with different materials are described. Enzyme immobilization methods, such as adsorption, affinity binding, chelation, or metal binding or covalent binding, enable the preparation of efficient and stable enzyme bound to magnetic nanoparticles. Such a product may be used among bioreactor applications for targeted drug delivery in biosensors or bioimaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Preparation of CLEAs, the microsized enzyme structures without a carrier, is described as well. Their main advantage is very simple preparation, where two steps, precipitation of the enzyme and cross‐linking, are joined. A broad spectrum of enzymes for CLEA preparation has been used and many biotechnological reactions are catalyzed. The improvement in CLEA preparation to enhance their stability and operability is also shown.
Part of the book: Micro and Nanotechnologies for Biotechnology