Although there are many definitions of antioxidants, the most general description; antioxidants are carried a phenolic function in their structure and prevent the formation of free radicals or intercept from damage to the cell by scavenging existing radicals. Moreover, they are one of the most effective substances that contain essential nutrients for healthy individuals. The importance of these antioxidants, which have an incredible effect on the body and increase the body’s resistance, is increasing day by day for healthy individuals. Numerous studies have been carried out for antioxidants with excellent properties and however new, reliable, selective, sensitive and green analytical methods are sought for their determination at trace levels in food samples. Along with the latest developments, electrochemical methods are of great interest in the world of science because they are fast, reliable, sensitive and environmentally friendly. Electrochemical methods have been frequently applied to analyze antioxidant capacity in many nutrients samples found in different forms such as solid, liquid without any pretreatment applications in the last decade. Furthermore, these methods are preferred because of the short analysis time, the ability to lower detection limits, reduction in a solvent, high sensitivity, portability, low sample consumption, wide working range, and more economical than existing other traditional analytical methods. The antioxidant sensing applications by modern electrochemical methods such as cyclic, square wave, differential pulse, and combined with stripping voltammetric techniques were used to deduce antioxidant capacity (AC) in critical nutrients. Moreover, this chapter includes a description of the classification of electrochemical methods according to the working electrode type, dynamic working range, limit of determination (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), sample type, and using standard analyte and so forth for each voltammetric methods. While many articles applied for the determination of antioxidant sensing by electrochemistry have gained momentum in the last two decades, we focused on the studies conducted over the last 4 years in this chapter.
Part of the book: Citrus