The knowledge regarding pathological and treatment resistance mechanisms involved in the pathology of complex brain disorders is far from understood. The neuroinflammation hypothesis of psychiatric, neurological, and neurodegenerative diseases is well-acknowledged. However, this hypothesis is far from understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family is an innate immunity molecule implicated in neuroinflammation in complex brain disorders. This chapter reviews considerable evidence indicating that activation of endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide is a common factor. Additionally, we report clinical and preclinical studies highlighting the link between lipopolysaccharide, TLRs, and different types of brain disorders. Also, we review the current pharmacological modulations of TLRs. Hoping we would help in filling our knowledge gaps and highlight potential links to tackle new angles in managing complex brain disorders. This chapter’s primary goal is to encourage scientists and researchers to conduct future studies characterizing the nature of endotoxin activation of TLRs in complex brain disorders, filling our knowledge gaps, and finding new treatment strategies.
Part of the book: Therapy Approaches in Neurological Disorders
Our knowledge regarding pathological and treatment resistance mechanisms involved in depression is far from understood. Sexual dimorphism in this topic is well acknowledged. However, the need to highlight sex-based discrepancies is unmet. Ketamine, the dissociative anesthetic, has emerged as a rapid antidepressant. This chapter reviewed sexual dimorphism in pharmacological and genetic models of depression, emphasizing ketamine-related antidepressant effects. Aiming by this report, we would extend our knowledge, highlight gender as one of the vital factors in examining depression in preclinical studies, and elucidate complex antidepressant effects associated with ketamine administration. Our central goal is to encourage neuroscientists to consider gender in their studies of mood disorders.
Part of the book: Ketamine Revisited