The emergence of biogenic nanomaterials as novel antimicrobials introduces a new paradigm in human health care. Based on the recent reports of the World Health Organization, infectious diseases pose one of the greatest health challenges. Increased multi-drug resistance prevalence among human pathogens, due to the inefficiency of commercially available antimicrobial drugs in the market is a great threat to humans. The poor solubility, stability and side effects of the antibacterial therapy prompted the researchers to explore new innovative strategies for developing new antimicrobials. Recently, biogenic nanoparticles have proven their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Biogenic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are easy to produce, biocompatible, provide enhanced uptake and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the capping of the biogenic nanocrystals provides an active surface for interaction with biological components, facilitated by free active surface functional groups to enhance their efficacy and delivery. Inorganic nanocrystals (AgNPs and ZnONPs) are effective both as nano-bactericides and as nanocarriers against sensitive and MDR) pathogens. The present chapter focuses on the utilization of the recent nanosystems to combat drug resistance in human pathogens. Nanomedicine represents a new generation of potiential antimicrobial candidates capable of combating the drug resistance in various pathogenic organisms.
Part of the book: Materials at the Nanoscale