Although Uganda has abundant energy resources including hydropower, oil and gas, biomass, geothermal, and solar energy, energy poverty is still very high and constrains socio-economic transformation. Biomass energy accounts for approx. 88% of the energy mix and only up to 28% of the country population have access to electricity, and the two energy sources are climate sensitive. The reliance on biomass energy is a driver to deforestation and forest degradation that also reduces the country’s resilience to climate hazards such as flooding, drought and landslides. Besides, deforestation is driver to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adversely affects the delivery of ecosystem services. Uganda is also warming very first and rainfall patterns are becoming more variable. Coupled with increasing occurrence and severity of drought, intense rainfall, flooding and landslides, energy supply systems are becoming more vulnerable. While Uganda is currently not a major emitter of GHG, emissions will rise significantly in the future given the country’s rapidly growing population and urbanization that are increasing demand for energy and exacerbated by ongoing oil and gas development. Therefore, as Uganda strives to attain a middle-income status country, building climate resilient and transiting to decarbonized energy systems is not only a necessity but transformational to reducing energy poverty, increasing access to clean and affordable energy services, spurring investment and economic growth, job creation, improved health and poverty reduction. In this chapter, we examine the nexus between energy and climate change in Uganda, focusing on energy as both a driver and victim of climate change while at the same time exploring opportunities for achieving enhanced access to affordable, reliable and clean energy as a contribution to sustainable, green and resilient development.