The article presents results of the research on jumping strategies applied by elite athletes in various sport disciplines. Research hypothesis: to perform the same motor task athletes employ different ways of organizing the movement and different features of MTU functioning. The choice of a mechanism to enhance muscle contraction depends on sport discipline, in particular specific features of the sport movement. The study involved members of the Russian national teams in alpine skiing, bobsleighing, mogul skiing and ski jumping. The athletes performed drop jumps from the heights of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 m with no arm swing. Experimental data were obtained online from 24 cameras using the Qualisys motion capture system (400 frames per second) and the two force plates AMTI 6000. Data was processed using the OpenSim package. The authors calculated the amount of accumulation and utilization of elastic strain energy and assessed metabolic energy expenditures in MTU. The authors concluded that employment of different strategies of movement organization in drop jumps could be explained by the transfer of motor skills specific to the athlete’s sport discipline. The results of the study may help coaches develop individual training plans for athletes, in particular strength training exercises targeting specific muscle groups.
Part of the book: Contemporary Advances in Sports Science
The chapter deals with the aspects of a take-off in track-and-field jumps with regard to biomechanics and physiological processes. In this chapter, we describe biomechanical and physiological processes underlying the main biomechanisms (BM), which are involved in track-and-field jumps. Our investigation aims at confirmation of the hypothesis that the concept of BM forms the basis of the approach to selecting technique development means in track-and-field. The aim of the first part of the research was to compare the contribution of different BMs. We have analyzed biomechanical parameters of the take-off in a group of elite jumpers (n = 50) during official competitions. Computer simulation modeling was used to detect how an increase in the run-up speed changed the contribution of different BMs. The aim of the second part of the research was to examine the peculiarities of a take-off in special exercises. Findings of the research demonstrated that the take-off in training exercises was performed using relatively independent BMs, similar to those used in competitive jumps. Being dependent on the motor task, key biomechanisms appear to be interdependent on the dynamic level. The role and contribution of the BMs depend on the type of exercise or conditions of its execution, initial conditions, and a motor task set to an athlete.
Part of the book: Exercise Physiology