Potato, Solanum tuberosum, the most important non-grain food crop and essential crop globally, has been widely cultivated around the world for centuries. The significance of this plant is increasing due to high nutritional value of the tubers combined with the simplicity of its propagation. As a plant organ, tuber of potato, is mainly edible part of it and popular as nutrient for almost all nations. Tuberization in potato is a very complex biological occurrence affected by numerous ecological signals, genetics, plant nutrition and several different hormones. Many pests including nematodes limit potato tuber development that plant hormones play roles in nematode feeding cell formation. Parasitic nematodes, important pests which cause damage to plants, tubers, suck up nutrients from plants and weaken plant development and yield losses. Many genes involve in tuber development and plant response nematodes. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the new advances in the field of molecular host-nematode interactions and tuber development.
Part of the book: Solanum tuberosum
Strawberry is an important crop for many features, including being rich in vitamins and minerals. In addition to fresh consumption, it has been appealing to a wide range of consumers in recent years. Its cultivation is in flat areas, slopes, and areas where other crops are limited. Many pests and diseases that are the main biotic stress factors cause significant crop losses in strawberry cultivation. The aim of this chapter is to reveal biotic stress factors and their management. Several plant-parasitic nematodes, fungal diseases, weeds, pests, virus diseases, and bacterial diseases are the main biotic stress factors in plant growing and fruit ripening. The preparation of this book chapter is based on previously published sources and researches and manuscripts. In this section, it is aimed to provide readers with new perspectives in terms of collecting data on nematodes, diseases, pests, weeds, and fruit ripening of strawberry plants. The effect and mechanism of those biotic stress factors on strawberry growing are discussed and revealed in this chapter.
Part of the book: Recent Studies on Strawberries
Plant hormones, such as auxin, play crucial roles in many plant developmental processes, which is crosstalk with gibberellin and strigolactone. The roles of hormones may vary in the biosynthesis of metabolisms. During the pathogen attack, including plant-parasitic nematodes, viroid, phytoplasma, virus, and bacteria, plant hormones are involved in several plant processes. Ethylene (ET), salicylate (SA), jasmonate (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA) primarily regulate synergistically or antagonistically against pathogens. Those pathogens—nematodes, bacteria, viroid, phytoplasma, and viruses regulate several plant hormones for successful parasitism, influencing the phytohormone structure and modifying plant development. Several genes are related to plant hormones that are involved in pathogens parasitism. In this chapter, how pathogens affect plant hormones in plants growing are discussed.
Part of the book: Plant Hormones
Several pathogens and pests damage tomato plants, and only one and/or more pathogens and pests can coexist in the same plant at the same time. As several numerous pathogens are found in the same plant, the damage to the tomato plants is higher. Pathogens such as nematodes, viruses, viroids, bacteria, and insects adversely affect the growth and development of tomato plants. They may infect roots or upper part of the plant and can cause not only slow down the growth of plants, but also crop losses and their death. Damaging of plant caused by pathogens and pests reduces the market value of plant products. Those pathogens and pests are also called biotic stress agents. The damage, mode of infection, and the mechanism of infection in each tomato plant and pathogens might be different. This situation is crucially important to understand plant pathogen relationship in detail in terms of controlling pests and pathogen. The effect of each pest/pathogen on tomato plants during the cultivation, the type of damage, and new developments and perspectives on morphological and molecular aspects in tomato-pathogen interactions will be discussed in this chapter.
Part of the book: Tomato