Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is mostly a benign disease of the bone, although with high local recurrence rate and potential for metastatic spread, namely to the lungs. It is also a locally aggressive tumor, associated with severe morbidity and functional impairment due to bone destruction. Treatment is therefore required and should be offered at an early stage to allow complete resection, minimizing functional sequelae and local recurrence. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, often followed by intralesional adjuvant therapy. GCTB has a particular biology, in which RANKL represents a key factor in tumor pathogenesis, thus making this molecule a valuable therapeutic target. Monthly administration of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL, has been studied in several clinical trials and shown a high rate of local control with favorable safety profile. In this chapter, current medical management, ongoing studies, and future directions in GCTB will be discussed.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Bone Tumours and Osteoarthritis