Urban expansion and industrial development destroy agricultural lands, pastures, and forests, and reduce the ecological and biological potential of lands, known as desertification. Diminished land potential due to one or a combination of processes such as erosion, destruction of water resources, destruction of vegetation, and swamping, by climate and human factors, is called desertification. Among these, human factors have a vital role in the emergence of this phenomenon. Excessive human economic activity upsets the ecological balance of arid and semi-arid regions, leading to adverse environmental changes. With the expansion of deserts in some parts of the world, food production and water resources are declining, resulting in environmental migration. Due to the limited capacity of urban areas to provide facilities and services, these migrations will cause severe socio-economic problems. In general, climatic and human factors are among the fundamental causes of desertification in the world. Preventing improper agricultural practices that lead to salinity and widespread soil degradation requires well-planned and strengthened awareness programs and development of information and care systems for areas exposed to desertification and drought, while also addressing the economic and social dimensions in these ecosystems.
Part of the book: Deserts and Desertification