The physico-chemical process of coagulation-flocculation is very efficient and economical for the treatment of leachate. The latter can have considerable impacts on the environment. The leachate from the landfill of the city of Mohammedia is characterized by a high COD content which varies between 2200 and 2700 mg/l, a total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration varying from 1080 to 1405 mg/l while the ammonium content has a concentration varying between 587 and 1410 mg/l. Organic matter is not readily biodegradable (BOD5/COD: 0.2 to 0.13). Metal concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 4.2 mg/l for Cr, 40 to 5 mg/l for Cd, and 0.3 to 0.8 mg/l for lead. For monitoring the leachate treatment, several coagulants and flocculants were used (FeCl3, Al2(SO4)3, Alginate, cationic flocculants, anionic flocculants). In parallel with the monitoring of the physicochemical parameters we followed the production of the volume of the settled sludge over time. Treatment with all coagulants and flocculants used is pH dependent. Ferric Chloride has been shown to be effective at a pH of 6.5 while for Aluminum Sulfate the optimum pH is 5.3. The results showed that coagulation-flocculation by Ferric Chloride and Aluminum Sulfate is very effective in reducing turbidity. This reduction reaches 95 and 98% respectively for FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3, while the reduction in COD for the two coagulants is around 60%. Organic flocculants alone do not lead to a significant reduction in turbidity and COD, while their combination with coagulants marks a good reduction in pollution. Hydrated iron hydroxides precipitate more easily than flocs formed by aluminum, resulting in more efficient removal of pollutants than that obtained at lower pH values. The order of introduction strongly influences the coagulation flocculation. The optimal doses of the various coagulants and flocculants chosen for the study vary from one reagent to another. FeCl3 remains the most suitable coagulant to further eliminate organic and metal pollution. The cost associated with the treatment using flocculants remains much higher when the flocculant is used in admixture with a coagulant.
Part of the book: Environmental Management