Increasing amount of organic dyes in the ecosystem particularly in wastewater has propelled the search for more efficient low-cost bio adsorbents. Different techniques have been used for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic dyes such as: biological degradation, oxidation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, and membrane filtration. Among all these processes mentioned, adsorption with low cost adsorbents has been recognized as one of the cost effective and efficient techniques for treatment of industrial wastewater from organic and inorganic pollutants. Clays as material adsorbents for the removal of various toxic dyes from aqueous solutions as potential alternatives to activated carbons has recently received widespread attention because of the environmental-friendly nature of clay materials. This chapter presents a comprehensive account of the techniques used for the removal of industrial cationic and anionic dyes from water during the last 10 years with special reference to the adsorption by using low cost materials in decontamination processes. Effects of different adsorption parameters on the performance of clays as adsorbents have been also discussed. Various challenges encountered in using clay materials are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the adsorbents are proposed.
Part of the book: Dyes and Pigments