This overview summarizes the evolution of pathophysiologic treatment of diabetes type 2 (T2D) in the period of the last 40 years. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) and Real World Evidence (RWE) studies resulted in recent Statements of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in the year 2020. Case reports and studies of a single-centre in Czech Republic are reported. The authors demonstrate the impact of (1) multiple doses of rapid insulin, (2) multiple doses of rapid or ultrarapid insulin analogs (3) continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (4) incretin receptor agonists, (5) fixed combination of insulin degludec with liraglutide (IDegLira) and (6) SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, on plasma glucose concentration, HbA1c, body mass and patient satisfaction. The importance of therapeutic patients’ education and technology (personal glucometers, continuous/flash glucose monitors, insulin pens/pumps) is emphasized. Most of the observations were already published. Hence, individually adopted education, lifstyle, technical equipment, incretin receptor agonists and/or metformin and/or gliflozins and/or insulin analogs appear to be the core of an effective pathophysiologic approach. Scientific conclusions from RCTs, RWE trials and own clinical case reports may prevail over clinical inertia and induce early implementation of effective methods into routine T2D treatment.
Part of the book: Type 2 Diabetes