Norovirus (NoV) has been recognized as the most common etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in various epidemiological settings worldwide. The virus displays a high genetic diversity that can be classified into genogroups, genotypes, and recombinant strains. Only genogroups I, II, and IV have been found to infect humans. Variants of genogroup II genotype 4 are the most widely circulating strains and have been responsible for all NoV outbreaks globally since the mid-1990s. Several studies from different Brazilian regions have been conducted to detect and genetically characterize NoV from sporadic AGE cases and outbreaks. In this chapter, we have summarized the data that focused on the genetic variabilities of NoVs and thus highlight the value of a surveillance system in assessing not only the true burden of the disease, but also the detection and characterization of emerging novel variants.
Part of the book: Norovirus