Muscles are the enriched reservoir of proteins in the body. During any workout or exercise, the demand in the form of energy is essentially required by the muscle. Energy expenditure of skeletal muscle is more dependent on the type of demand. There is particular homeostasis within the body that avoid surplus energy expenditure and this prevents any muscle loss. Muscle atrophy is termed as the loss of skeletal muscle mass due to immobility, malnutrition, medications, aging, cancer cachexia, variety of injuries or diseases that impact the musculoskeletal or nervous system. Hence, atrophy within the skeletal muscle initiates further cause fatigue, pain, muscle weakness, and disability in human subjects. Therefore, starvation and reduced muscle mass further initiate numerous signaling pathways including inflammatory, antioxidant signaling, mitochondria bio-energetic failure, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Sirtuin 1(SIRT1), BDNF/TrkB/PKC, Autophagy, ubiquitin-proteasome systems, etc. Here, in this chapter, we will mention molecular mechanisms involved in therapeutic targets and available Pharmacological Interventions with the latest updates.
Part of the book: Background and Management of Muscular Atrophy