Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction and increasing breathlessness. COPD is increasing worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The most important risk factor of developing COPD is cigarette smoking; however, occupational exposures such as vapors, gases, dusts and fumes present an important risk factor for the development of the disease, by itself and through interaction with other risk factors. The dusts from coal, stone quarries, wood, cereals and agricultural work, animal stables, textiles, and paper production that can arise in occupational environments have been regulated by the International Labor Organization and considered possible as contributors to COPD. A better understanding of these causes paves the way for effective interventions to reduce the future incidence of this unpleasant condition. Breathlessness and occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts and fumes were identified as the main modifiable factors associated with unemployment and poor work productivity in COPD patients.
Part of the book: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now recognized as a global health problem. It is most usually caused by smoking cigarettes, although it can also be caused by a variety of environmental toxins, noxious gases, fumes, and dust. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an effective intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is recommended by clinical guidelines. It is an important part of the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other chronic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a recent approach in respiratory medicine that is defined as an “individually customized and designed, interdisciplinary program of care” for patients with persistent respiratory failure. Patient selection and assessment, psychological support, self-management education, nutritional support, and exercise training (including inspiratory muscle training (IMT) are all important components of pulmonary rehabilitation.
Part of the book: A Compendium of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease