Dynamic metabolic changes occur in the liver during the transition between fasting and eating, which is mainly mediated by insulin, a hormone to promote anabolism and suppress catabolism. In obesity and diabetes, insulin resistance is induced via various mechanisms, and among them is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We recently reported that eating induces transient ER stress and consequent ER stress response in the liver. During eating, expression of Sdf2l1, an ER-resident molecule involved in ER stress-associated degradation, is induced as a part of ER stress response. XBP-1s regulates expression of Sdf2l1 at the transcription level, and Sdf2l1 terminates eating-induced ER stress in the liver, consequently regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. In obesity and diabetes, however, ER stress response is impaired, partly because insulin-mediated translocation of XBP-1s to the nucleus is suppressed, which results in further excessive ER stress. Induction of Sdf2l1 by XBP-1s is highly down-regulated, but restoration of Sdf2l1 ameliorates glucose intolerance and fatty liver. In diabetic patients, hepatic insulin resistance induces enhanced ER stress and ER stress response failure in the liver, which in turn promote hepatic fibrosis and contribute to the development of steatohepatitis comorbid with diabetes.
Part of the book: Psychology and Pathophysiological Outcomes of Eating