Our aim was to study the association of hostility with the DRD4, DAT, MAOA genes in an open male population of 25–64 years old. A representative sample of men aged 25–64 years (n = 657 men, average age 44.3 ± 0.4 years) was examined in 1994–1995 and 45–64 years old (n = 781 men, average age - 56.48 ± 0.2 years) in 2003–2005 using the methods proposed by the WHO international program “MONICA-psychosocial” and “HAPIEE”. All respondents completed the hostility questionnaire on their own. Genotyping of the DRD4, DAT and MAOA gene polymorphisms was carried out. It was established that the level of hostility in the male population was 76.9% in the group of 25–64 years old and 60.3% in the group of 45–64 years old. Genotypes 4/6, 4/7 of the DRD4 gene are reliably associated with a high level of hostility; the genotype 4/4 of the DRD4 gene is associated with an average and lower level of hostility. There was no association of individual genotypes and VNTR alleles of DAT gene polymorphism with different levels of hostility. It was found that among individuals with low-active alleles of the MAOA-L gene (alleles 2 and 3), a high level of hostility was more common - 50.9%. The results of constructing a logistic regression model showed that the presence of low-active alleles (2; 3) of the MAOA gene increases the likelihood of hostility OR = 2.103 (95% CI 1.137–3.889, p = 0.018). Based on the received data we can assume that the long alleles of the DRD4 gene and the low-level allele of the MAOA-L gene are associated with hostility.
Part of the book: Evolutionary Psychology Meets Social Neuroscience
Introduction: The study aimed to determine gender differences in the prevalence and dynamics of affective states over a long period, i.e., 23 years, and to establish their effect on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), i.e., arterial hypertension (AH), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke among the population aged 25–64 in Russia / Siberia. Methods: Between 1994 and 2017, we conducted 4 screening surveys of representative samples (totalling 4,815 people) under the international programs MONICA and HAPIEE in Russia / Siberia. To determine the sex differences in cardiovascular risk from 1994 to 2010, we observed cohorts formed from the screened individuals without CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM). Results: High levels of affective states in the period from 1994 to 2003, especially in women, were replaced by a downward trend in 2013. At the same time, there was a reduction in the gender gap in terms of frequency of depression lower 1%, and men in the younger age groups reported higher levels of personal anxiety (49.3% vs 46.1% in adults aged 35-44y) and vital exhaustion (16.9% vs 15.6%) than women in 2017. We found that men with unfavourable levels of affective states have a 3–5 fold higher risk of hypertension and stroke, while women have a higher risk of myocardial infarction (p for all < 0.05). Hostility in men is associated with a negative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke (HR=0.3 and HR=0.29, respectively; p for all < 0.05). However, this was levelled out by unfavourable social characteristics. Conclusions: The downward trends in prevalence of psychosocial factors were unstable and associated with reduced gender gap for affective states. It had a significant impact on the gender magnitude of cardiovascular risk.
Part of the book: Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
The purpose of the study is to research the effect of polymorphism of genes such as CLOCK, ARNTL, PER2, NPAS2, DRD4, DAT, TNF-α, and NPSR1 on sleep disorders in an open population of 25–64-year-old men. We conducted screening studies of representative samples of men aged 25–64 years. The general examination was carried out according to the standard methods included in the WHO MONICA-Psychosocial Program (MOPSY). Carriers of the C/T genotype of the CLOCK gene more often than others reported having “satisfactory” or “poor” sleep. Carriers of the C/T genotype of the ARNTL gene were more likely to experience anxiety dreams, and they woke up exhausted. Carriers of the A/A genotype of the PER2 gene were more likely to wake up two or more times per night, a total of four to seven times per week. In the population, C/T and T/T genotypes of the NPAS2 gene were significantly more common in individuals with 7-hour sleep. Genotype 4/6 of the DRD4 gene and genotype 9/9 of the DAT gene were significantly associated with sleep disturbances. Carriers of the heterozygous A/G genotype of the TNF-α-308 gene, compared with carriers of all other genotypes, more often rated sleep as “satisfactory” (30%) than “good.”
Part of the book: Circadian Rhythm
To analyze the association between trait anxiety and health attitude, awareness of risk factors, and prevention of cardiovascular disease in men and women aged 25–44 years. In 2013–2016, 427 men and 548 women of residents 25–44 years were studied. To assess TA (trait anxiety), a form of Spielberger’s self-report Trait Anxiety Inventory has been proposed. When interpreting the indicators, the following approximate estimates of anxiety were used: low TA (LTA), medium TA (MTA), and high TA (HTA). The framework of the budget issue Reg. No.122031700094-5. Respondents with HTA believed that they were “not quite healthy”; had complaints about their health; apparently did not take enough care of their health. People with HTA believed that it was “highly likely” that they would get a serious disease in the next 5–10 years. It turned out that only 5.1% of the population planned to consult a doctor with HTA, less than people with LTA - 12.1% (p < 0.05). It has been established that trait anxiety is associated with low self-esteem regarding one’s health status and insufficient awareness of both risk factors and prevention of CVD.
Part of the book:[Working title]