Felty’s syndrome (FS) is an uncommon subset of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated by neutropenia with or without splenomegaly. The pathogenesis of neutropenia in FS is still not fully understood, but it is believed that the principal cause is neutrophil survival defect. Autoantibodies against peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 deiminated histones, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and eukaryotic elongation factor 1A-1 antigen may contribute to neutropenia development in FS patients. Splenic histology in FS shows non-specific findings and spleen size do not correlate with neutropenia. Cases of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia with low tumor burden in blood and concomitant RA are clinically indistinguishable from FS and present a diagnostic challenge. Examination of T-cell clonality, mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene, and the number of large granular lymphocytes in the blood can establish a correct diagnosis. Optimal approaches to therapy for FS have not been developed, but the use of rituximab seems promising. In this chapter, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for FS are discussed.
Part of the book: Rare Diseases