Conversion of agricultural wastes into eco-friendly and low cost biochar is not only a smart recycling strategy but a panacea to environmental pollution management. Agricultural wastes biochar can be an effective alternative technique for controlling contaminants due to its low cost, high-efficiency, simple to use, ecological sustainability and reliability in terms of public safety. Biochars have made substantial breakthroughs in reducing greenhouse gases emissions, reducing soil nutrient leaching, sequester atmospheric carbon into the soil, increasing agricultural productivity, and reducing bioavailability of environmental contaminants. Recent advances in the understanding of biochars warrant a proper scientific evaluation of the relationship between its properties and impact on soil properties, environmental pollutant remediation, plant growth, yield, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main factors controlling biochar properties include the nature of feedstock, heat transfer rate, residence time and pyrolysis temperature. Biochar efficacy in pollutants management largely depends on its elemental composition, ion-exchange capacity, pore size distribution and surface area, which vary with the nature of feedstock, preparation conditions and procedures. The chapter explored the possibility of using biochar from agricultural wastes as a suitable alternative for the remediation of environmental pollutants, soil conditioning and the long-term biochar application in the environment.
Part of the book: Environmental Health