Sexual dimorphism of the adult brain regulates sex-dependent functions including reproductive and neuroendocrine activities in rodents. It is determined by sex steroid hormones during a critical perinatal period in female and male rodents. Sex steroids act on each nuclear receptor in the brain and control different physiological and neuroendocrine functions and behaviors. Several regions of the brain show evident morphological sex differences that are involved in their physiological functions. This review addresses and focuses largely on the role of sex-dependent differences in the brain, and their crucial functions in animal models. Particularly, recent intriguing data concerning the diversity of neuronal functions and sexual dimorphism are discussed.
Part of the book: Oxytocin and Health