Biofuels are gaining increased scientific as well as public attention to fulfill future energy demands and can be the only potential candidates to safeguard and strengthen energy security by reducing the world’s reliance on exhausting fossil energy sources. Sugarcane is an important C4 crop with great potential to contribute to global biofuel production as sugarcane juice can be easily fermented to produce ethanol. The success of bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has widened the scope of the technology and has led to increased demand of purpose-grown sugarcane for biofuel production. Scientific interventions have not only helped to improve the cane crop but industrial procedures have also been upgraded resulting in improved production of bioethanol. Likewise, advancements in omics have led to high hopes for the development of energy cane. This chapter highlights the advancements as well as potential and challenges in the production of sugarcane biofuel, focusing on genetic and genomic interventions improving the crop as energy-cane. Further, controversies in the production and usage of biofuel derived from sugarcane have also been discussed.
Part of the book: Sugarcane