HER2 plays a vital role in the development and progression of several types of human cancer, so the HER2 becomes one of major targets for HER2-positive breast cancer treatment. Several reports have shown that the HER2 oncogene expression relates to clinicopathological factors in cancer patients. HER2Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism associates with malignant tumors, including prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, osteosarcoma, gastric cancer, uterine cervical carcinoma, fibroadenoma, and breast cancer. To understand the precise association, this chapter was described to estimate the association between HER2Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism and susceptibility to breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the Val allele in HER2 codon 655 single nucleotide polymorphism is strongly associated with the risk of breast cancer. HER2Ile655Val single nucleotide polymorphism might also be a susceptibility factor that favors early-onset breast cancer.
Part of the book: Genetic Polymorphisms
Chronic heat stress-induced testicular damage and function therefore adversely affect their reproduction. Some research shows that heat stress has a negative effect on histopathological features of testicular tissue structure and spermatogenesis. An animal model was used to evaluate the effect of heat stress on testicular histology changes and spermatogenesis. The mouse model of heat stress was established by submerged in a pre-warmed incubator. The testes’ tissue was fixed and stained with hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) for quantitative analysis of histopathological alterations and spermatogenesis according to Johnson scoring system. Mice exposed to heat stress exhibited degenerated and disorganized features of spermatogenic epithelium and reduced spermatogenic cells. Heat stress exposure shows a significantly reduced Johnson score compared to the control condition. The percentage of high Johnsen score points was decreased in heat-stress exposure mice, while the ratio of low Johnsen score points was gradually increased. This chapter describes a mouse model for studying the male reproductive system and applies the Johnsen scores system to assess testicular histopathology in the seminiferous tubule cross-section. Collectively, this chapter indicated a negative impact of heat stress on mouse spermatogenesis as well as the human reproductive system.
Part of the book: Male Reproductive Anatomy