Gums, or polysaccharides, are complex carbohydrates, soluble in water, which can form gels and mucilages. They have high molar mass and can be formed by galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, galacturonic acid, among others. They have gelling characteristics, thickening, moisture retention, emulsification and stabilization. Polysaccharides are widely used in the formulation of food products, due to their wide versatility. Its diversity of applications is closely linked to its chemical structures. The characterization of structural molecules allows the knowledge of the properties of polysaccharides or glycoconjugates. In this sense, this chapter addresses knowledge about chemical, molecular, rheological, thermodynamic characteristics that are extremely important to identify the use and applications of polysaccharides in the context of elaboration and innovation in the food industry.