Composting is a process of degrading organic waste to form a stable material through a control process called aerobics with a biodegradation conversion process that allows the colonization of beneficial microorganisms. Careful handling of inorganic waste was significant to reducing the cost of compounding livestock feed and minimizing waste disposal in the community. Innovative technologies can inactivate pathogens in organic waste. Compost has been found to be effective in stimulating plant growth and suppressing diseases and pathogens. Safety standards remains essential for producing food rich in proteins. The use of compost can sufficiently address the challenges of malnutrition and poverty worldwide. Composting through invertebrates was also found to be significant. This is the basis upon which life exists because of the continued recycling of waste. Food security and safety goes hand in hand with the use of compost. None of these parameters must be overlooked if food production is required to meet the needs of the continuously growing population in the future.
Part of the book: Humic Substances
Agricultural sustainability is an indicator for economic prospect across the globe. The revolution of industrial development and the growth of annual crop to meet the need of increasing world population is a determining factor for SOC availability. Sustainability of agriculture is largely related to SOC and management practices. Agro-ecological stability is significant to soil type and fertility input. Organic matter is a combination of plant residue and/ or animal waste. This is capable of accumulating carbon and nitrogen in the soil. It retains water and support the buildup of organic carbon. It enhances the stability of SOC and crop yield. The use of organic matter is effective at stabilizing the microbial communities. Carbon sequestration is high with crops that have abundant residues. SOC can potentially mitigate climate change. It prevents the use of minimum and conventional tillage. Higher deposit of SOC is associated with crop yield. Perennial crop cultivation such as cup plant (Siliphium perforliatum. L.) can potentially sequestrate carbon into the soil than annual crop. SOC are often exhausted with the cultivation of annual crop such as maize. However, SOC can be retained by growing clover in between harvests and the next sowing. Mineral fertilizer can likewise accumulate SOC but not as efficient as the use organic manure and plant residue. Perennial crop was found useful at preventing environmental degradation and soil compaction. Consistent assessment of SOC is essential for continuous food production and plant growth. This can be achieved through a multidimensional software called multiple linear regression.
Part of the book: New Generation of Organic Fertilizers