Flavonoids are natural products, which are useful in the protection of various types of human diseases. Several bioactive flavonoids as chalcones, flavonols, flavanol, flavones, flavanone, flavan, isoflavonoids, and proanthocyanidin, are found in parts as leaves, root, bark, stem, flowers, weed, fruits of plant species. Flavonoids are synthesized in higher plant species via the shikimate pathway, phenylpropanoid and polyketide pathway. The chalcones and flavanones are central intermediates of the pathway, which give several diverse classes of flavonoids. Central intermediates pathway (chalcones and flavanones pathway) depends on plants species and group of enzymes such as hydroxylases, reductases and isomerases to give different classes of flavonoids skeleton. The anthocyanins, isoflavonoids and condensed tannin (proanthocyanidins) are an important class of flavonoids, which synthesized by flavanones. Mostly, biosynthesis of flavonoids start from phenylpropanoid pathway. The phenylpropanoid pathway starts from shikimate pathway. The shikimate pathway starts from phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate.
Part of the book: Bioactive Compounds