Phagocytes including neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages are important cells of the innate immune system whose primary function is to ingest and destroy microorganisms. Neutrophils help their host fight infections by phagocytosis, degranulation, and neutrophil extracellular traps. Neutrophils are the most common type of circulating white blood cells and the principal cell type in acute inflammatory reactions. A total absence of neutrophils or a significant decrease in their number leads to severe immunodeficiency that renders patients vulnerable to recurrent infections by Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria being the most life-threatening. Neutropenia may be classified as mild, moderate or severe in terms of numbers in the peripheral blood, and intermittent, cyclic, or chronic in terms of duration. Besides well-known classic severe congenital neutropenia, chronic neutropenia appears to be associated with an increasing number of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), including those of myeloid and lymphoid lineage. A comprehensive overview of the diverse clinical presenting symptoms, classification, aetiological and genetic etiologies of chronic isolated and syndromic neutropenia is aimed to be reviewed.
Part of the book: Innate Immunity in Health and Disease