Nutritional utilization of antioxidants, such as vitamins C, E, ß-Carotene and micronutrients, such as folate and zinc, have been shown to be critically essential for normal semen quality and reproductive function. However, it is still, a large knowledge gap exists concerning the role of antioxidants on semen parameters and the role in treatment of male subfertility. Therefore, the current review article designed to find out the positive effect of antioxidants on semen quality, alterations in physiological functions of spermatozoa and infertility treatment It is advisable that patients with oxidative DNA disruption should be asked to take a simple course of antioxidants prior to undertaking assisted reproduction treatment (ART). In conclusion, antioxidant may be employed as a potent antioxidant and may improve infertility treatment outcomes with ART.
Part of the book: Antioxidants
One of the major concerns of the world health community is the infertility. The definition of infertility according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) is the inability of a healthy couple to achieve a conception after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Fertility complications affect seven percent of the male. The causes of infertility were divided to non-obstructive and obstructive. But, in almost 75% of male infertility cases are idiopathic with predominance of the genetic abnormalities. Numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities are considered as genetic abnormalities that occur during the meiotic division in spermatogenesis. These abnormalities get transferred to the Offspring, which affects the normal and even the artificial conception. In the human reproduction, sperm cells are considered as a delivery vehicle for the male genetic material packed in chromosomes, which are composed of nearly 2-meter Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule and their packaging proteins. This chapter points to grant a summarized description of individual components of the male reproductive system: the seminiferous tubule and spermatogenesis. Here, we describe step by step the structure of the testis seminiferous tubule and what occurs inside these tubules like cell communication and germ cell development from spermatogonia until spermatozoon. This book chapter is very useful for the biologists and physicians working in Assisted reproduction field to understand the physiology and pathology of spermatogenesis.
Part of the book: Male Reproductive Anatomy