Glucose-induced oxidative stress can be found related to “glucose variability” and “glucose memory”. The irregular low and elevated glucose conditions cause damage to endothelial cell function than a steady, constant rise in level of glucose. Activation of PKC, NADPH oxidases, and mitochondrial oxidants are some of the pathways exhibited as a result of this aggravated cellular response. Regarding glucose memory, long after the normalization elevated level of glucose in the endothelial cells of diabetic rats and culture, a existance or ‘memory’ of induced basement membrane mRNA is expressed. This demonstrates that glucose causes dangerous long-term effects beyond the hyperglycemia period. Oxidative stress give rise to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity which are phenomena’s related to diabetes. Following the pathogenesis of diabetes, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia exerts a supplementary toxic effect on the beta-cells. So, hyperglycemia can be considered as a requirement for the destructive effects of lipotoxicity. Thus glucolipotoxicity can be considered as a substitute for lipotoxicity which relates the detrimental correlation between lipids and beta-cell function. Generally, the antioxidant pharmacotherapy can be coupled with drugs to boost the natural cellular defense mechanisms as the naturally existing antioxidant components, which neutralizes free radical damage. This considers antioxidant a boon tool for pharmacotherapeutic agent.
Part of the book: Antioxidants