Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder where autoantibodies are produced against TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) receptor causing thyrotoxicosis. It is characterized by goiter, ophthalmopathy, and occasionally pretibial myxedema. The autoimmune mechanism causing disease is not well understood and it is complex. It involves multifactorial etiology involving environmental and genetic factors. Smoking and positive family history contributing to the development of GD. GD can be diagnosed based on the clinical manifestation and demonstrating low concentration of TSHs, high TRab (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone receptor autoantibodies), and high FT4 (Free thyroxine) concentration. Current treatment options aimed at stable restoration of euthyroidism by following different modalities of suppressing thyroid gland using antithyroid drugs, removing/ablating thyroid gland by surgery, and radioactive iodine treatment with iodine- 131.
Part of the book: Graves' Disease