Nanotechnology is an expanding area of research where we use to deal with the materials in Nano-dimension. The conventional procedures for synthesizing metal nanoparticles need to sophisticated and costly instruments or high-priced chemicals. Moreover, the techniques may not be environmentally safe. Therefore “green” technologies for synthesis of nanoparticles are always preferred which is simple, convenient, eco-friendly and cost effective. Green synthesis of nanoparticle is a novel way to synthesis nanoparticles by using biological sources. It is gaining attention due to its cost effective, ecofriendly and large scale production possibilities. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. It has vital importance in nanoscience and naomedicines to treat and prevent vital disease in human beings especially in cancer treatment. In current work we discussed different methods for synthesis of AgNPs like biological, chemical and physical along with its characterization. We have also discussed vital importance of AgNPs to cure life threatnign diseases like cancer along with antidiabetic, antifungal, antiviral and antimicrobial alog with its molecular mode of action etc. Finally we conclude by discussing future prospects and possible applications of silver nano particles.
Part of the book: Silver Micro-Nanoparticles
Rheumatoid Arthritis is the autoimmune disorder occurs due to the change in life style, improper diet plans, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption etc. It generally affects the joints and creates swelling and severe pain in joints which leads to further destruction of bone and cartilages. Due to autoimmune responses the factors like Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukins-1 are introduced to synovial and synovial membrane which creates the swelling and pain. These factors further produce reactive oxygen species and inducing osteoclasts which destruct the bone and cartilages. Along with the drugs the several natural herbal treatments are also available for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This includes varies medicinal plants form which acacia species is more potent and efficient. Acacia Senegal is the plant which blocks the receptors and decreases the level of tumor necrosis factor-α. Present work on rheumatoid arthritis mainly covers classification, factors responsible, pathophysiology, severity, current treatment and its drawbacks, herbal treatment and its benefits in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Part of the book: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fat in the body associated with numerous complications such as development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, and respiratory disorders; and ultimately life-threatening cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, certain types of cancer and osteoarthritis. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 years and older were overweight. Of these, over 650 million adults were obese, that is over 39% of men and 40% of women were overweight. Rapid rise in obesity cases in both developed and developing countries and people suffering from it needs rapid and complete cure form it without any side effects. Herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of disease for more than 2000 years, and it has proven efficacy. Many studies have confirmed that herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of obesity. Various plants from different families and several phytochemical constituents are responsible for the anti-obesity activity such as fenugreek cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, etc. Present work mainly cover herbal species having leptin-stimulating potential for weight management, importance of leptin, its mechanism of action, current and herbal treatment for effective weight management.
Part of the book: Weight Management
Currently lipid-based formulations are playing a vital and promising role in improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipid based formulations mainly consist of a drug dissolved in lipids such as triglycerides, glycerides, oils and surface active agent. Self nanoemulsifying formulations (SNEF) are isotropic mixtures of lipids/oils, surfactants and co-surfactants. On mild agitation followed by dilution in aqueous media, such as GI fluids, SNEF can form fine oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsions. Present chapter summarizes different types of lipid formulations with special emphasis on SNEF, availability of dosage forms, different components with natural surfactants from medicinal plants, mechanism of SNEF, recent advancements in oral drug delivery, solid SNEDDS, patents on SNEF and future prospects. SNEF emerging as powerful technique to improve solubility and commercialization of solid SNEF is the future novel drug delivery to improve bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs.
Part of the book: Dosage Forms
Cancer is the leading cause of death, and incidences are increasing significantly and patients suffering from it desperately need a complete cure from it. The science of using an already-invented drug that has been approved by the FDA for a new application is known as “drug repurposing.” Currently, scientists are drawn to drug repositioning science in order to investigate existing drugs for newer therapeutic uses and cancer treatment. Because of their unique ability to target cancer cells, recently repurposed drugs and the liposomal approach are effective in the treatment of cancer. Liposomes are nanovesicles that are drastically flexible, rapidly penetrate deeper layers of cells, and enhance intracellular uptake. More importantly, liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable; entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. This chapter summarizes various approaches to drug repurposing, as well as drug repurposing methods, advantages and limitations of drug repurposing, and a liposomal approach to using repurposed drugs in cancer targeting. This chapter also summarizes liposomal structure, drug loading, and the mechanism of liposomes in targeted cancer treatment. The lipid-based liposomal approach is emerging as a powerful technique for improving drug solubility, bioavailability, reducing side effects, and improving the therapeutic efficacy of repurposed drugs for cancer treatment.
Part of the book: Drug Repurposing