Periodontal medicine is a broad term commonly used to define the relationship between periodontitis and systemic health. Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, chronic multifactorial infectious disease, induced by the dysbiotic biofilm that triggers a persistent systemic inflammation and recurrent bacteremia. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that suggests the potential implication of periodontitis in the causation and progression of various systemic disease and conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and cancer. Some studies consider periodontitis as an independent risk factor for preterm birth, growth restriction, low birth-weight and pre-eclampsia. However not all studies support the association. Despite sparse scientific data, some studies indicate that individuals with periodontitis are at increased risk for cancer development, due to the increased inflammatory burden sustained by the presence of periodontal pathogens. This chapter emphasis the relationship between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes and the underlying mechanisms that link peridontitis to oral carcinogenesis.
Part of the book: Periodontology
Due to the important advancement and the accumulation of new evidence on the periodontitis-cardiovascular disease (CVD) relationship as well as the major medical, economic and social burden caused by both diseases this chapter aims to review existing epidemiological and pathogenetic links related to this topic. Also, this chapter aims to highlight the impact of the periodontitis-CVD relationships on clinical practice and on the preventive approaches targeting to decrease the impact of periodontitis on CVD. Periodontitis is an infectious disease eliciting local and general inflammation, which leads to periodontal destruction and systemic involvement. Several pathways could explain the link between periodontitis and CVD such as bacteraemia, chronic persistent systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The first step in the treatment of periodontitis addresses the elimination of microbial components, which lead to a decrease in local and systemic inflammation. Periodontal therapy seems to positively impact CVD. Specialists should inform patients with CVD on the negative impact of periodontitis on their systemic status and refer patients to the periodontist for an extensive examination as routine management of CVD. Some possible risks of periodontal therapy should be considered in patients undergoing antithrombotic medication.
Part of the book: Oral Health Care