Nowadays, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in sewage/wastewater is a major environmental concern. Their precise characterization and suitable treatment/disposal is a must else it pollutes the surface water bodies and causes major distress on aquatic lives and human health. Also, the up-gradation of the sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a must to consider the removal of these pollutants and to provide the best quality effluent for various reuse purposes. Mostly, the conventional treatment methods are inefficient for their removal, and hence, the most advanced and refined treatment options are needed for their effective treatment. In this chapter, we have highlighted the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in various water samples and their treatment options are reviewed. It was recommended that integrated treatment systems are more efficient, economical, and environmental friendly than single stand-alone treatment. Further advancement and modifications in the treatment options are required to overcome the shortcomings regarding pharmaceutical removal to achieve the legal standard discharge limit.
Part of the book: Sewage